The identity religion and politics of african americans during the reconstruction

Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice. The New World enslavement of diverse African peoples and the cultural encounter with Europeans and Native Americans produced distinctive religious perspectives that aided individuals and communities in persevering under the dehumanization of slavery and oppression. As African Americans embraced Christianity beginning in the 18th century, especially afterthey gathered in independent church communities and created larger denominational structures such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, and the National Baptist Convention. These churches and denominations became significant arenas for spiritual support, educational opportunity, economic development, and political activism.

The identity religion and politics of african americans during the reconstruction

Currently "black" and "African American" are in favor, and "Afro-American" and "Negro" are out of favor. The situation before was just the reverse. The use of the term "African Canadian," a similar politically correct attempt at labeling Canadians of African or Caribbean origin, is largely rejected in favor of the term "Black Canadian.

Blacks were originally brought to America to serve as slaves in southeastern states on large-scale plantations. During the Civil Warall slaves were freed by Abraham Lincoln though the Emancipation Proclamationthe Thirteenth Amendmentand some state actions.

During Reconstruction the Freedmen freed slaves gained citizenship and civil and political rights, including the right to marry, move about, and keep their wages.

The system of sharecropping instituted after the end of the war left most Freedmen poor, while the Jim Crow policies of racial segregation that were implemented after the end of Reconstruction limited their civic and political rights.

Judith Weisenfeld

Notably, the states that supported these policies were largely governed by members of the Democrat Party. Blacks left the rural south in two waves, the first aroundthe second coming after World War II when machinery ended the need for large numbers of people to pick cotton by hand.

The migrants headed to the large cities of the North and West, and also in the South, moving from very poorly paid farm work to wage labor. Politics Blacks tended to support the Republican Party from the s to the s, but few who lived in the South voted—some states even stopped people of African ancestry voting by the use of literacy tests, poll taxes and other measures.

The New Deal provided large-scale relief for blacks during the Great Depression. Some black Republican organizations, as in Chicago, switched overnight to the Democrats. This sudden change is often attributed to the leftist sentiments that were growing in the late twentieth century.

The 15th Amendment allowed blacks to vote, but despite vigorous enforcement in the South prior to the Voting Rights Actminority voter registration was still much lower than white voter registration.

Religion Barack Obama, the first President with black ancestry Among African Americans, Christianity is very high, and the standard practice since Reconstruction is for black ministers to be community spokespersons, and political power brokers; they often run for office.

The great majority of African Americans are Protestantswith their own BaptistPentecostaland Methodist churches. A few are Muslims. These "anti-miscegenation" laws were only finally ended in the federal case Loving v.

Virginiawhen a mixed race couple successfully challenged all laws against mixed marriage in the states. Although de jure segregation has ended, de facto segregation continues in many aspects of American life.

Many people have observed that Sunday morning when people are attending church is perhaps the most racially segregated time of the week—because many congregations and denominations are composed primarily of a single race. Similarly, housing patterns have created neighborhoods of predominantly a single race.

The federal government has outlawed racial discrimination, but continues to support historically black colleges and universities which continue to educate a predominantly African American student body.

Many states have two public university systems: Within an individual college that includes students of both races, African Americans socialize in particular fraternities that are historically African American or live in "special interest" dormitories that focus on the "Black experience. The concept of promoting and having all Americans accept a separate "Black culture" in the United States has culminated in the opening of a separate Smithsonian museum on the subject.

The identity religion and politics of african americans during the reconstruction

As a result, in the 50 years since the passage of the Civil Rights law, American society has not been thoroughly integrated and still has many divides along racial lines.Administrators established teaching schools and other institutions of higher education for African Americans during Reconstruction.

Schools were set up in New Orleans, Shreveport, Baton Rouge, Amite, and other sites around the state to train black teachers. Administrators established teaching schools and other institutions of higher education for African Americans during Reconstruction.

Schools were set up in New Orleans, Shreveport, Baton Rouge, Amite, and other sites around the state to train black teachers. While northern private benevolence and the federal government deserve credit for aiding black education in Georgia during Reconstruction, the primary impetus and sustaining force came from the state's African webkandii.com first postwar schools were former clandestine schools, operating openly by January Religion in Black America refers to the religious and spiritual practices of African webkandii.comians generally agree that the religious life of Black Americans "forms the foundation of their community life." Before there was scattered evidence of organized religion among blacks in the American colonies.

The identity religion and politics of african americans during the reconstruction

While northern private benevolence and the federal government deserve credit for aiding black education in Georgia during Reconstruction, the primary impetus and sustaining force came from the state's African webkandii.com first postwar schools were former clandestine schools, operating openly by January The creation of autonomous black churches was a major achievement of the Reconstruction era, and a central component of blacks' conception of freedom.

The first institution fully controlled by African-Americans, the church played a central role in the black community.

Race, Culture, and Religion in the American South - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion