This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Treatment failure in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis poses a great danger to the global effort in control of tuberculosis. Consecutive patients managed between August and August at the Directly Observed Therapy Tuberculosis Unit of our hospital were enrolled for the study. Sputum specimens were collected from each patient at entry for Acid Fast Bacilli and repeated at the end of 2nd, 5th and 7th month of treatment.
Key facts Tuberculosis TB is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. In10 million people fell ill with TB, and 1. TB is a leading killer of HIV-positive people.
An estimated 54 million lives were saved through TB diagnosis and treatment between and Tuberculosis TB is caused by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable. TB is spread from person to person through the air.
When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air. A person needs to inhale only a few of these germs to become infected. About one-quarter of the world's population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not yet ill with the disease and cannot transmit the disease.
However, persons with compromised immune systems, such as people living with HIV, malnutrition or diabetes, or people who use tobacco, have a much higher risk of falling ill. When a person develops active TB disease, the symptoms such as cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss may be mild for many months.
This can lead to delays in seeking care, and results in transmission of the bacteria to others. People with active TB can infect 10—15 other people through close contact over the course of a year.
Who is most at risk? Tuberculosis mostly affects adults in their most productive years.
However, all age groups are at risk. The risk of active TB is also greater in persons suffering from other conditions that impair the immune system. One million children 0—14 years of age fell ill with TB, and children including children with HIV associated TB died from the disease in Tobacco use greatly increases the risk of TB disease and death.
Global impact of TB TB occurs in every part of the world. Symptoms and diagnosis Common symptoms of active lung TB are cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
Many countries still rely on a long-used method called sputum smear microscopy to diagnose TB. Trained laboratory technicians look at sputum samples under a microscope to see if TB bacteria are present. Microscopy detects only half the number of TB cases and cannot detect drug-resistance.
The test simultaneously detects TB and resistance to rifampicin, the most important TB medicine. Diagnosis can be made within 2 hours and the test is now recommended by WHO as the initial diagnostic test in all persons with signs and symptoms of TB.
Treatment TB is a treatable and curable disease. Active, drug-susceptible TB disease is treated with a standard 6 month course of 4 antimicrobial drugs that are provided with information, supervision and support to the patient by a health worker or trained volunteer.
Without such support, treatment adherence can be difficult and the disease can spread. The vast majority of TB cases can be cured when medicines are provided and taken properly. Between andan estimated 54 million lives were saved through TB diagnosis and treatment.Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. . Indeed, with rates of treatment failure and relapse of percent and percent, respectively, among 80 HIV-seronegative patients, and of percent and 9 percent among 20 HIV-seropositive.
Among previously treated microbiologically confirmed TB patients, the treatment success rate has remained at 70%. Treatment outcome of TB patients in the private sector There are currently few notifications from the private sector although they are now increasing.
Key facts. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide.
In , million people fell ill with TB, and million died from the disease (including million among people with HIV). In conclusion, there is a high treatment failure rate among TB patients managed in our DOTS clinic, and HIV infection may be a risk factor for treatment failure. There is the need for provision of facility for sputum culture for detection of patients with primary and multi-drug-resistant TB cases.
Findings The mortality rate among this cohort of tuberculosis patients was 60/ person-years. The excess general mortality The excess general mortality expressed as standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was (95% confidence interval (CI) = –).