More information Introduction Nanotechnology is likely to be extremely important in the future as it allows materials to be built up atom by atom. This can lead to the development of new materials that are better suited for their purpose.
Luminescence[ edit ] Photoluminescence map from single-wall carbon nanotubes. Photoluminescence Fluorescence [ edit ] Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes emit near-infrared light upon photoexcitation, described interchangeably as fluorescence or photoluminescence PL.
The excitation of PL usually occurs as follows: Both electron and hole rapidly relax via phonon -assisted processes from c2 to c1 and from v2 to v1 states, respectively. No excitonic luminescence can be produced in metallic tubes. Their electrons can be excited, thus resulting in optical absorption, but the holes are immediately filled by other electrons out of the many available in the metal.
Therefore, no excitons are produced. Salient properties[ edit ] Photoluminescence from SWCNT, as well as optical absorption and Raman scattering, is linearly polarized along the tube axis. By improving the structural quality and isolation of nanotubes, emission efficiency increased.
Emission wavelength can vary between 0. PL from double-wall carbon nanotubes strongly depends on the preparation method: Applications[ edit ] Photoluminescence is used for characterization purposes to measure the quantities of semiconducting nanotube species in a sample. Nanotubes are isolated dispersed using an appropriate chemical agent "dispersant" to reduce the intertube quenching.
Then PL is measured, scanning both the excitation and emission energies and thereby producing a PL map. The data of Weisman and Bachilo are conventionally used for the identification. Thus potentially, optical properties of a carbon nanotube can be controlled by encapsulating certain molecule inside it.
Besides, encapsulation allows isolation and characterization of organic molecules which are unstable under ambient conditions. An electron beam can be finely focused and scanned across the studied material.
This technique is widely used to study defects in semiconductors and nanostructures with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. However, no reliable CL, i. Electroluminescence[ edit ] If appropriate electrical contacts are attached to a nanotube, electron-hole pairs excitons can be generated by injecting electrons and holes from the contacts.
Subsequent exciton recombination results in electroluminescence EL. Electroluminescent devices have been produced from single nanotubes    and their macroscopic assemblies. Consequently, Raman spectroscopy is probably the most popular technique of carbon nanotube characterization.
Similar to photoluminescence mapping, the energy of the excitation light can be scanned in Raman measurements, thus producing Raman maps.
Contrary to PL, Raman mapping detects not only semiconducting but also metallic tubes, and it is less sensitive to nanotube bundling than PL. However, requirement of a tunable laser and a dedicated spectrometer is a strong technical impediment.
Radial breathing mode[ edit ] Radial breathing mode RBM corresponds to radial expansion-contraction of the nanotube. If RBM intensity is particularly strong, its weak second overtone can be observed at double frequency.
This mode corresponds to planar vibrations of carbon atoms and is present in most graphite-like materials. The splitting pattern and intensity depend on the tube structure and excitation energy; they can be used, though with much lower accuracy compared to RBM mode, to estimate the tube diameter and whether the tube is metallic or semiconducting.
D mode[ edit ] D mode is present in all graphite-like carbons and originates from structural defects. High-quality nanotubes have this ratio significantly higher than This ratio gives an idea of the functionalisation of a nanotube.
Its intensity is stronger than that of the D mode due to different selection rules. However, they are less important and are not considered here. Anti-Stokes scattering[ edit ] All the above Raman modes can be observed both as Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering.
As mentioned above, Raman scattering from CNTs is resonant in nature, i.
Rayleigh scattering[ edit ] Carbon nanotubes have very large aspect ratioi. Consequently, as expected from the classical electromagnetic theoryelastic light scattering or Rayleigh scattering by straight CNTs has anisotropic angular dependence, and from its spectrum, the band gaps of individual nanotubes can be deduced.Posted: Aug 06, Carbon nanotubes and the pursuit of the ultimate body armor (Nanowerk Spotlight) With the ever-increasing multiple threats like traditional warfare, counterinsurgency and terrorism in border areas/urban centres/airports/public places etc.
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Nanotechnology is the generic name given to the production or use of very small, or 'nano' particles. These are particles that are less than one hundred nanometres or about one thousandth the width of a human hair.
A nanometre is one billionth of a metre. Posted: Aug 06, Carbon nanotubes and the pursuit of the ultimate body armor (Nanowerk Spotlight) With the ever-increasing multiple threats like traditional warfare, counterinsurgency and terrorism in border areas/urban centres/airports/public places etc.
looming, there is an urgent need for providing reliable armor protection to personnel . Co-doped 1T-MoS 2 nanosheets embedded in N, S-doped carbon nanobowls for high-rate and ultra-stable sodium-ion batteries. Welcome to the Shinohara Laboratory in the Department of Chemistry at Nagoya University.
Our Research on Nanocarbon Materials >> News ・Congratulations! Kazuki Ueno (a Master student) has won "Young Scientist Poster Award" in the 55th Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Graphene General Symposium.(September 12th, ) ・Our recent paper (Chem.
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