Edward Said, Orientalism New York: Vintage Books, Introduction Said starts by asserting the fact that the Orient played an instrumental role in the construction of the European culture as the powerful Other: In the Foucaultian tradition, Said suggests to look at Orientalism as a discourse:
He is always aware, to use one of his phrases, of the cost of civilization. He knows the price of glory and the price of equity; that the price of one may be the expense of the other; that the two are incompatible; and that both prices must be paid.
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He knows; or at any rate he knows that he does not know. I suppose that if he accepted this language at all, he would allow that this knowledge represents the Human price; and he might go on that this is why he has cut down on tykish impulses and wild insights, why he insists on using a mind never entirely his own.
He has always wanted a pattern, whether a set or a current, a pattern of relevant ideas as a vantage from which to take care of his occasional commitments. When he can find the current he will swim in it, when he cannot he will accept the set; in either case they will be the ideas which seem to be the furniture of the American liberal imagination; and in either case he tries to make these ideas the tools of positive reaction and response.
He does not ask the question in so many words, but his book asks it: What on earth else is the American mind to do in the effort to control the understanding of that new thing in history, the mass urban society?
What else can be done in a society committed to universal education which yet at every level distrusts the intellect? One of the alternatives is to call Mr. Lewis has done, the New Stoicism [see excerpt above]….
Stoicism is a confession of failure and in our society the confession of failure is a howling success. Trilling does not confess failure; it is one of the freakish qualities of his mind that he does not make any confessions at all.
More formally, I do not believe that Mr. Trilling makes virtue the highest good in any practicable sense; nor does he concentrate on ethics and the control of passions; nor is he indifferent to pleasure and pain; nor does he blot himself out in favor of self-control.
He wants only to control what is there; he finds special forms of reality in the quarrel of pleasure and pain; he finds passion a source of thought and the overestimation of virtue a tragic impulse. These are very different matters, and whatever they may be called they ought not to be called stoicism.
Nor does he grin and bear it in the Boy Scout adulteration of stoicism. His fortitude, which he shares with the stoic, and most other forms of surviving life, is of a very different order; his fortitude may cut his gains along with his losses out of obstinacy in particulars or weakness in sensibility, but so does any fortitude that rests on choice.
He has the fortitude, in his essays, to act by choice as a public res publica mind. It is his business to take a position, to react and to respond, between incommensurable forces.
He is an administrator of the affairs of the mind. He is everywhere against the passive as he is against escape into the long view or aggression into the moral view.
It is the difference between saying that the job cannot be done and saying that the job must be done over again at the cost of any insurrection and any initiative.
It may be that to hold such notions and be without the power of anything but critical action is to be a stoic in fact. Trilling it is an aspect of what he calls moral realism; it is a very different thing from the stoicism which Henry Adams used to call moral suicide.
Put another way, Mr. Trilling requires the development not the attrition of values in the conflict between morals and experience; and his chief complaint is against the attrition of value after value, often mistaken for the hardening, and sometimes for the prophecy, of value in the contemporary American mind.
He gives us Faulkner and Hemingway as exceptions to the very stoicism which Mr. Lewis fastens upon him; he presents them as writers in whom ideas flourish and the mind has power.
The mind in question would seem to be the mind of primitive terror and childhood piety, almost a nightmare piety, and it would seem to me Mr. Trilling gives this mind more credit than it deserves, for it reaches full action in the "moral realism" of the reader, not its own.
The entire section is 2, words.Critical and literary works. Trilling wrote one novel, The Middle of the Journey (), Beyond Culture: Essays on Literature and Learning.
New York: Viking Press. Trilling, Lionel. Beyond Culture: Essays on Literature and Learning. Wald, Alan M.
(). On the teaching of modern literatureEmma and the legend of Jane AustenThe fate of pleasureFreud: within and beyond cultureIsaac BabelThe Leavis-Snow controversyHawthorne in our timeThe two environments: reflections on the study of EnglishBibliographical note (p.
). Jane Austen. December 16, July 18, Nationality: British; English Birth Date: December 16, Death Date: July 18, Genre(s): FICTION; NOVELS Table of Contents: Biographical and Critical Essay Northanger Abbey.
Lionel Trilling, the influential intellectual, wrote in the preface to his book Beyond Culture that Any historian of the literature of the modern age .
Beyond culture; essays on literature and learning Beyond culture; essays on literature and learning. by Trilling, Lionel, Publication date Topics Enseñanza, Cultura, Littérature, Literature.
Publisher New York, Viking webkandii.com: Lionel Trilling (?75) is the author of the collections Beyond Culture, The Liberal Imagination, and the posthumously published Speaking of Literature and Society.
He was a professor at Columbia University.5/5(1).