Taxes had to be collected, lawsuits between villages or private individuals had all to be recorded, and the merchants kept accounts of their goods and profits.
The Mexica supplied the Tepaneca with warriors for their successful conquest campaigns in the region and received part of the tribute from the conquered city states.
In this way, the political standing and economy of Tenochtitlan gradually grew. InAzcapotzalco initiated a war against the Acolhua of Texcoco and killed their ruler Ixtlilxochitl.
Tezozomoc died inand his sons began a struggle for rulership of Azcapotzalco. The Mexica were now in open war with Azcapotzalco and Itzcoatl petitioned for an alliance with Nezahualcoyotlson of the slain Texcocan ruler Ixtlilxochitl against Maxtla. The Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan besieged Azcapotzalco, and in they destroyed the city aztecs writing and symbols sacrificed Maxtla.
Through this victory Tenochtitlan became the dominant city state in the Valley of Mexico, and the alliance between the three city-states provided the basis on which the Aztec Empire was built. These states had an economy based on highly productive chinampa agriculture, cultivating human-made extensions of rich soil in the shallow lake Xochimilco.
Itzcoatl then undertook further conquests in the valley of Morelossubjecting the city state of Cuauhnahuac today Aztecs writing and symbols. The accession of a new ruler in the dominant city state was often an occasion for subjected cities to rebel by refusing to pay tribute.
This meant that new rulers began their rule with a coronation campaign, often against rebellious tributaries, but also sometimes demonstrating their military might by making new conquests. Motecuzoma tested the attitudes of the cities around the valley by requesting laborers for the enlargement of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan.
Only the city of Chalco refused to provide laborers, and hostilities between Chalco and Tenochtitlan would persist until the s. Motecuzoma therefore initiated a state of low-intensity warfare against these three cities, staging minor skirmishes called "Flower Wars" Nahuatl xochiyaoyotl against them, perhaps as a strategy of exhaustion.
His brother Tlacaelel served as his main advisor Nahuatl Cihuacoatl and he is considered the architect of major political reforms in this period, consolidating the power of the noble class Nahuatl pipiltin and instituting a set of legal codes, and the practice of reinstating conquered rulers in their cities bound by fealty to the Mexica tlatoani.
Axayacatl also conquered the independent Mexica city of Tlatelolco, located on the northern part of the island where Tenochtitlan was also located. The Toluca valley was a buffer zone against the powerful Tarascan state in Michoacanagainst which Axayacatl turned next.
In the major campaign against the Tarascans Nahua Michhuahqueh in —79 the Aztec forces were repelled by a well organized defense. Axayacatl was soundly defeated in a battle at Tlaximaloyan today Tajimaroalosing most of his 32, men and only barely escaping back to Tenochtitlan with the remnants of his army.
Tizoc died suddenly inand it has been suggested that he was poisoned by his brother and war leader Ahuitzotl who became the next tlatoani. His successful coronation campaign suppressed rebellions in the Toluca valley and conquered Jilotepec and several communities in the northern Valley of Mexico.
A second campaign to the gulf coast was also highly successful. He began an enlargement of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan, inaugurating the new temple in For the inauguration ceremony the Mexica invited the rulers of all their subject cities, who participated as spectators in the ceremony in which an unprecedented number of war captives were sacrificed — some sources giving a figure of 84, prisoners sacrificed over four days.
Probably the actual figure of sacrifices was much smaller, but still numbering several thousands. Ahuitzotl also constructed monumental architecture in sites such as Calixtlahuaca, Malinalco and Tepoztlan. After a rebellion in the towns of Alahuiztlan and Oztoticpac in Northern Guerrero he ordered the entire population executed, and repopulated with people from the valley of Mexico.
He also constructed a fortified garrison at Oztuma defending the border against the Tarascan state. His early rule did not hint at his future fame. He succeeded to the rulership after the death of Ahuitzotl. Moctezuma Xocoyotzin Nahuatl "He frowns like a lord, the youngest child"was a son of Axayacatl, and a war leader.
He began his rule in standard fashion, conducting a coronation campaign to demonstrate his skills as a leader. He attacked the fortified city of Nopallan in Oaxaca and subjected the adjacent region to the empire. An effective warrior, Moctezuma maintained the pace of conquest set by his predecessor and subjected large areas in Guerrero, Oaxaca, Puebla and even far south along the Pacific and Gulf coasts, conquering the province of Xoconochco in Chiapas.
He also consolidated the class structure of Aztec society, by making it harder for commoners Nahuatl macehualtin to accede to the privileged class of the pipiltin through merit in combat.
He also instituted a strict sumptuary code limiting the types of luxury goods that could be consumed by commoners. At this point the power balance had shifted towards the Spaniards who now held Motecuzoma as a prisoner in his own palace.
During the fighting Moctezuma was killed, either by the Spaniards who killed him as they fled the city or by the Mexica themselves who considered him a traitor. He ruled only 80 days, perhaps dying in the smallpox epidemic, although early sources do not give the cause.
After the siege and complete destruction of the Aztec capital, he was captured on 13 Augustand marked the start of Spanish hegemony in central Mexico.
His death marked the end of a tumultuous era in Aztec political history. Political and social organization Main articles: Class in Aztec societyAztec societyand Aztec slavery Folio from the Codex Mendoza showing a commoner advancing through the ranks by taking captives in war.
Each attire can be achieved by taking a certain number of captives. The most powerful nobles were called lords Nahuatl teuctin and they owned and controlled noble estates or houses, and could serve in the highest government positions or as military leaders.The Aztec alphabet, in the sense of each symbol representing only a sound, was an introduction by the Spanish.
Classical Nahuatl is the name of the language that was spoken by the people of the Aztec empire. The Aztecs followed a simple writing system. It was made up of pictograms, which the Aztecs used to create calendars, accounts, and basic records of events. The writing has survived in books written on bark, known as codices.
The Aztecs didn’t have a writing system as we know it, instead they used pictograms, little pictures that convey meaning to the reader.
Pictography combines pictograms and ideograms—graphic symbols or pictures that represent an idea, much like cuneiform or hieroglyphic or Japanese or Chinese characters.
Aztec or Nahuatl writing is pre-Columbian writing system that combines ideographic writing with Nahuatl specific phonetic logograms and syllabic signs which was used in central Mexico by the Nahua webkandii.com majority of the Aztec codices were burned either by Aztec tlatoani (emperors) for ideological reasons, or by Spanish clergy following the conquest of Mesoamerica.
The Aztecs didn’t have a writing system as we know it, instead they used pictograms, little pictures that convey meaning to the reader. Pictography combines pictograms and ideograms—graphic symbols or pictures that represent an idea, much like cuneiform or hieroglyphic or Japanese or Chinese characters.
Aztec black on orange ceramics are chronologically classified into four phases: Aztec I and II corresponding to ca, – (early Aztec period), Aztec II ca. (–), and the last phase Aztec IV was the early colonial period.