The Pedagogical Enhancement of Open Education: The movement now has a critical mass of available content.
The examination methods and questions have a large impact on how and when students study and what they learn. Examination should not only be used as a control that a student is qualified, but also as an educational tool to influence the learning process Figure 8.
If the assessment is mainly for factual knowledge, the students will primarily learn, memorize and recall facts and details. The learning process is influenced by the type of examination.
Such tests may have a high reliability, i. For measuring that the aims and objectives of higher education have been fulfilled, assessments need to include tests of understanding such as ability to interpret, exemplify, summarize, compare and explainas well as ability to apply, analyse, evaluate and synthesize; assessment of skills, such as ability to communicate, should also be included.
When students know that all this will be examined, they will extend their learning and gain useful and enduring knowledge and skills. Students should be given the opportunity to learn from the examination, and realize what an answer should have covered. Furthermore, the students' answers are of value for the teacher to reveal what has been difficult for students to understand or to apply, and thus identify modifications needed in the teaching.
Examples of examination methods Various forms of examination and assessment might be used. Written exams, including short-answer and essay questions Short-answer questions are usually easy to judge and grade, but mainly test how students recall specific facts.
In subjects involving quantitative manipulations, it is suggested to include numeric tasks for the students to elaborate on, as well as some questions on explaining the meaning of concepts and the results in words.
It is also recommended to include essay questions in the written examination; those will give a better assessment of how students have understood a subject and their ability to apply their knowledge and do analysis, comparison, evaluation and synthesis.
The grading of the essay questions could also include how students outline and express their answers in writing.
In order to make students learn from the assessment, one option can be to give them 10 exam questions, for example, and ask them to answer 7 of those during the examination different students can make different choices.
Each student is also asked to deliver answers to the 3 questions omitted, but then as a take-home exam. Open-book exams In an open-book exam, students are allowed to use their textbooks and possibly also other materials during the examination session commonly used in Biometry.
This examination form can be helpful to test students' understanding and ability to apply knowledge, as well as to select relevant information. A limitation might be lack of relevant textbooks or that students cannot afford to buy the books.
Multiple-choice tests In multiple-choice tests, the students select the answer from several alternative answers usually for each question. These types of tests mainly focus on detailed knowledge and are not very effective at measuring and stimulating learning for understanding, analysis, synthesis and application of knowledge.
The tests are easy to judge and grade, but to construct good multiple-choice questions with realistic alternatives is difficult and time-consuming. Multiple-choice tests might be found useful for examination in very large groups of students, or as a guiding quiz in continuous assessment.
They should be combined, however, with other examination methods. Multiple-choice tests could be used early in a course if, for example, the students are asked to read some simple texts to get an overview of the subject area before going into the individual parts. Knowing that there will be a test might motivate them to read, and the teacher can quickly check their answers.
Computer-based assessment Computer tests can be based on multiple-choice questions, but might also involve more interactive events where students are presented a case or a problem to elaborate on at the screen.
An advantage of computer tests is that students get an immediate feedback on their answers; the tests can also be used for continuous self-assessment. Lack of computers in sufficient numbers might limit the use of this examination method.
Take-home exams In a take-home exam, the tasks or questions can be distributed to students in the morning, and at the end of the following day they deliver a written short report to be judged and commented upon by the teacher s.
Take-home exam can be a good way to test students' understanding and ability to apply knowledge, and to select and synthesize relevant information; the method might best fit MSc students.
Reports delivered can be compared to check that they have been produced individually. Oral examination Oral examination is useful to test the students' knowledge and understanding of a topic, as well as their ability for application, analysis, integration and synthesis.
The direct feedback in oral examination provides opportunities for students to learn from the examination, and for the teacher to realize what problems students are facing in grasping the topic.
It is also a good training for students to express themselves orally, without extended time to think about the answer. Such situations will occur in their professional careers. Oral examinations can be done in groups and still grade each student individually.
Performing an oral examination in a group of students during It might be wise to have two teachers per group of students in these examinations, especially if many groups are examined in a day. A comprehensive question, problem or case might be used as a starting point.
When examination is done in groups, it can be recommended that teachers do not direct their questions to a specific student; directing the questions will hamper the discussion and increase anxiety.An open-note test allows the test taker to bring in all of their notes and use them while taking the test.
The questions asked on open-note exams are typically more thought provoking and intellectual than questions on a closed-note exam. An examination of the licensing policies of open educational organizations and projects Dec 18, Computers and Technology.
The pedagogical enhancement of open education: An examination of problem-based learning Open education, as embodied in open educational resources (OER) and OpenCourseWare (OCW), has met and dealt with several key problems.
Examination is an important part of higher education. The examination methods and questions have a large impact on how and when students study and what they learn.
Examination is an important part of higher education. The examination methods and questions have a large impact on how and when students study and what they learn. Examination should not only be used as a control that a student is qualified, but also as an educational tool to . The purpose of this unit is to have a web based, readily accessible learning tool for medical students and residents to learn and improve musculoskeletal exam of . An Examination of Transactional Law Clinics and Interdisciplinary Education Dina Schlossberg* Since August of , I have had the good fortune to teach in the.
Examination should not only be used as a control that a student is qualified, but also as an educational tool to . The Pedagogical Enhancement of Open Education: An Examination of Problem -Based Learning Gurell, Kuo, and Walker 96 examination of the underlying pedagogies of OER and are even calling for materials that are.
An Examination of Transactional Law Clinics and Interdisciplinary Education Dina Schlossberg* Since August of , I have had the good fortune to teach in the.